Tlili, A., Shehata, B., Adarkwah, M. A., Bozkurt, A., Hickey, D. T., Huang, R., & Agyemang, B. (2023). What if the devil is my guardian angel: ChatGPT as a case study of using chatbots in education. Smart Learning Environments10(1), 15


Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have been progressing constantly and being more visible in different aspects of our lives. One recent phenomenon is ChatGPT, a chatbot with a conversational artificial intelligence interface that was developed by OpenAI. As one of the most advanced artificial intelligence applications, ChatGPT has drawn much public attention across the globe. In this regard, this study examines ChatGPT in education, among early adopters, through a qualitative instrumental case study. Conducted in three stages, the first stage of the study reveals that the public discourse in social media is generally positive and there is enthusiasm regarding its use in educational settings. However, there are also voices who are approaching cautiously using ChatGPT in educational settings. The second stage of the study examines the case of ChatGPT through lenses of educational transformation, response quality, usefulness, personality and emotion, and ethics. In the third and final stage of the study, the investigation of user experiences through ten educational scenarios revealed various issues, including cheating, honesty and truthfulness of ChatGPT, privacy misleading, and manipulation. The findings of this study provide several research directions that should be considered to ensure a safe and responsible adoption of chatbots, specifically ChatGPT, in education.