This chapter elaborates on a definition of personalized learning, delineates aspects of competency inherent in the definition, traces the evolution of personalized learning, and explores the complementarity of the personal and the interpersonal in personalized education. The chapter addresses and attempts to resolve tensions and tradeoffs between seemingly competing facets of personalized learning: (a) academic, career, and personal competencies; and (b) individualization, personalization, and socialization.

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Redding, S. (2016). Competencies and personalized learning. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, & J. Twyman (Eds.), Handbook on personalized learning for states, districts, and schools (3-18). USA: Centeril.